Category: adolescenti

HODNOTY českých a slovenských adolescentov pod vplyvom kyberpriestoru

The monograph describes human values and value systems that are under the pressure of cyberspace, which influences their development and shape. In adolescence, values gradually mature and begin to become part of the adolescent’s self. Today’s generation of adolescents is firmly embedded in cyberspace and it is part of their lives. In the society of Czech and Slovak girls and boys, there is only a tiny percentage of those who do not have a social networking account or access to the Internet from home.

Imaging devices in the form of smartphones and laptops often provide adolescents with a 24-hour connection to the global network. Some adolescents use social networks or play digital games for several hours a day, and for some it is their only daily leisure activity. The research project and its results presented in this monograph are the first glimmer of research on the influence of social networking, digital games and the Internet on values and their structure. Adolescents who were identified as having lower scores on autonomous, spiritual, and social value factors spend more time on the Internet and are more likely to share videos with inappropriate content. These boys and girls are characterized by a reduced concern for the well-being of others and are less interested in social customs.

The objective results can be used as a basis for defining and planning quality prevention programs, as well as for establishing rules for safe movement in cyberspace.

Test of Impulsivity in Adolescence

Test of Impulsivity in Adolescence

Adolescence is a very important developmental stage between
childhood and adulthood. It brings numerous changes, as well

as new impulses and experiences (Pfeifer & Allen, 2019). The

influence of parental figures is gradually replaced with the in

fluence of peers. Their influence can be positive – for instance,

mutual motivation towards the achievement of good study re

sults. In adolescence, however, teens are prone to various neg

ative impulses such as risky behaviour, frequently encouraged

by negative peer pressure (McCoy et al., 2019). This period is

also related to greater susceptibility to problematic behaviour,

which is frequently also associated with a greater rate of im

pulsivity (D’Acremont & Linden, 2005; Leshem & King, 2020).

There are a number of scholars looking into the phenomenon

of impulsivity and its antecedents and consequences from

various perspectives (Cross et al., 2011; Marvin et al., 2020).

Eysenck and Eysenck (1985) define impulsivity as a constitu

ent of tendencies supporting the seeking of spontaneous and

thoughtless exciting experiences. It also seems that in some

cases it may be a constituent of psychoticism. According to

Cloninger et al. (1993), impulsivity is a super-factor in search

ing for the novel (new excitement, experiences, acts) which

is not restricted by rules or limitations. Webster and Jackson

(1997) argue that impulsivity is normally distributed in the

population and individuals manifest a certain degree of it.

Individuals with a high rate of impulsivity tend to prefer small

immediate benefits to larger but delayed ones, and they are not

able to save their reward for later (Kalina et al., 2015).

A common feature in individual definitions of impulsivity is the

idea that impulsivity is a personality trait included in various

personality theories that may be summed up as a propensity

to act without thinking (Dolejš & Skopal, 2016). Impulsive indi

viduals tend to conduct various activities that are not planned

or premeditated and at the same time are risky either for the

individual himself/herself or for others.

Impulsivity is also a contributory factor to certain mental dis

eases. In DSM-5 and ICD-11 (APA, 2013), impulsivity is listed as

a separate category of control disorders that includes disorders

such as kleptomania, pyromania, addiction to playing games,

and gambling. Apart from this taxonomy, a link has been found

between impulsivity and a propensity for risky behaviour or a

tendency to indulge in risky activities such as the abuse of ad

dictive substances and vandalism (Dolejš & Orel, 2017).



Abstrakt: V príspevku sa zameriavame na prezentovanie vekových a medzipohlavných rozdielov v rizikovom správaní
a impulzivite. Základným teoretickým východiskom bola pre nás práca Jessora a jeho zistenia o syndróme rizikového
správania v dospievaní. Vo výskume sme použili metódy VRSA (Výskyt rizikového správania adolescentov; Dolejš, Skopal,
2015) a SIDS (Škála impulzivity Dolejš, Skopal; Dolejš, Skopal, 2016). Výskumný súbor pozostával z 2230 dospievajúcich
vo veku 10 až 15 rokov (Mvek = 12.51; SDvek = 1.48) zastupujúcich všetky regióny Slovenska. Predpokladali sme, že vek
a pohlavie budú faktory, ktoré majú vzťah k produkcii rizikového správania a impulzivite. Overovanie štatistických hypotéz
preukázalo tieto rozdiely.
Kľúčové slová: rizikové správanie, vekové rozdiely, genderové rozdiely, adolescencia, impulzivita

Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the presenting of the age and gender differences in the risk behavior and the impulsivity.
The theoretical basis for us was the work of Jessor and his findings about the risk behavior syndrome in adolescence. In the
research, we used the methods VRSA (in English: Occurrence of risky behavior of adolescents; Dolejš, Skopal, 2015) and
SIDS (in English: Impulsivity scale Dolejš, Skopal; Dolejš, Skopal, 2016). The research group consisted of 2230 adolescents
aged 10 to 15 years (Mage = 12.51; SDage = 1.48) represented all regions of Slovakia. We assumed that age and gender would
be related to the production of risk behavior and impulsivity. Verification of the statistical hypotheses confirmed these
Keywords: risk behavior, age differences, gender differences, adolescence, impulsivity.

Rizikové chování u adolescentů a impulzivita jako prediktor tohoto chování

Rizikové chování u adolescentů a impulzivita jako prediktor tohoto chování

While working with the individual we need to know particularities of the age of that person. The key period of the development of person is maturing, which we divide to early adolescents (11 to15 years old, 2nd part of elementary school) and late adolescence (approximately 16 to 22 years old, high school). During that era many comprehensive changes are happening in many different areas of individual´s life. Adolescent can be characterised by personal traits, one of those important traits is impulsivity. Impulsivity is part of risk behaviour, which includes many activities linked to negative impacts for adolescent, his/her surroundings and the society. This book contains theory about psychological phenomenon – adolescence, risk and impulsivity. Presented research includes more than 2000 pupils at the age of 11 to 16 years. The schools of those pupils were randomly chosen from Zlinsky a Moravskoslezsky region. The results were compared with two nationwide researches. Chosen psychological phenomenon were examined with diagnostic tools Škála impulsivity Dolejš a Skopal (SIDS) and Výskyt rizikového chování u adolescent (VRCHA). These tools have high validity, reliability and mutual connection. We gained valid information from two regions, those results show current situation in that area. The results about impulsivity and risk behaviour bring many practical recommendations for school prevention officers, special pedagogues and other experts.

Risk behaviour of adolescents and impulsivity as a predictor of risk behaviour

Při práci s jedincem je potřeba vždy znát specifika věku, ve kterém se tento jedinec právě nachází. Klíčovým obdobím ve vývoji člověka je dospívání, dělené na ranou (11-15 let; druhý stupeň základního vzdělání) a pozdní adolescenci (zhruba 16-22 let; středoškolské vzdělání). Dochází tu k řadě komplexních změn na všech úrovních. Kniha přináší teoretické ukotvení několika psychologických fenoménů – adolescence, rizikovosti a impulzivity. Prezentovaný výzkum zahrnuje více než dva tisíce žáků a žákyň ve věku 11-16 let z náhodně vybraných škol na území Zlínského a Moravskoslezského kraje, kteří jsou porovnáváni se dvěma celonárodními výzkumnými projekty. Sledované psychologické fenomény byly zjišťovány diagnostickými nástroji Škála impulzivity Dolejš a Skopal (SIDS) a Výskyt rizikového chování u adolescentů (VRCHA), které opakovaně prokázaly svoji validitu, reliabilitu a vzájemnou spojitost. Byly získány validní informace na úrovni dvou krajů, které ukazují současný stav v dané oblasti. Z prezentovaných výstupů ve vybraných parametrech impulzivity a rizikového chování vyplývá řada praktických doporučení pro školní metodiky prevence, speciální pedagogy a další odborníky pracující s adolescenty.

Efektivní včasná diagnostika rizikového chování u adolescentů / Effective early diagnostics of risky behavior in adolescents

Efektivní včasná diagnostika rizikového chování u adolescentů / Effective early diagnostics of risky behavior in adolescents

Dolejš, M. (2020). Efektivní včasná diagnostika rizikového chování u adolescentů. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci
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